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REFORGER
 

    Exercise Reforger (Return of Forces to Germany) was an annual exercise conducted, during the Cold War by NATO. The exercise was intended to ensure that NATO had the ability to quickly deploy forces to West Germany in the event of a conflict with the Warsaw Pact.

    The Reforger exercise itself was first conceived in 1967. The Johnson administration announced plans to withdraw approximately two divisions from Europe during 1968. As a demonstration of its continuing commitment to the defense of NATO and to illustrate its capability of rapid reinforcement, a large scale force deployment was planned that would deploy a division or more to West Germany in a regular annual exercise. The first such exercise was conducted beginning on 6 January 1969. These exercises continued annually past the end of the Cold War, except for the year 1989, until 1993. Reforger 1988 was billed as the largest European ground maneuver since the end of World War II as 125,000 troops were deployed.

    Reforger was not merely a show of force—in the event of a conflict, it would be the actual plan to strengthen the NATO presence in Europe. In that instance, it would have been referred to as Operation Reforger. Important components in Reforger included the Military Airlift Command, the Military Sealift Command, and the Civil Reserve Air Fleet.

    The US Army also increased its rapid-reinforcement capability by prepositioning huge stocks of equipment and supplies in Europe at POMCUS (Prepositioning Of Material Configured in Unit Sets) sites. The maintenance of this equipment has provided extensive on-the-job training to reserve component support units.

    The first exercise began in January 1969 with 17,000 Soldiers, the last ended in May 1993 with 7,000. The largest exercise was in 1988 which included 124,800 Soldiers.

1969-1993
United States Army Europe
 
U.S. ARMY EUROPE
 

 
REFORGER 1988 - Certain Challenge
Name
Began
Ended
Participating Units
Personnel Strength
Locations
Reforger I  Carbide Ice
29 Jan 1969
4 Feb 1969
(Germany based unit) 2nd Armored Cavalry Regiment; (U.S.based Units) 24th Infantry Division; 2nd Squadron 3rd Armored Cavalry Regiment
17,000
Grafenwöhr, Amberg, Hohenfels
Reforger II  Certain Thrust
13 Oct 1970
23 Oct 1970
(Germany based units) VII Corps, 3rd Infantry Division, 4th Canadian Mechanized Brigade, Panzergrenadierbrigade 35; (U.S.based Unit) 1st Infantry Division
33,500
Bamberg, Ebern, Schweinfurt, Würzburg, Kitzingen, Bayreuth, Haßfurt, Grafenwöhr, Pegnitz, Neumarkt
Reforger III Certain Forge
11 Oct 1971
15 Oct 1971
(Germany based units) VII Corps, 31st Armored Division, 4th Canadian Mechanized Brigade, Panzergrenadierbrigade 35, Panzergrenadierbrigade 36; (U.S.based Unit) 1st Infantry Division
33,000
Ingolstadt , Amberg, Freising, Beilngries, Landshut, Schwandorf, München, Nürnberg, Bayreuth
Reforger IV Certain Shield
9 Jan 1973
22 Jan 1973
(Germany based units) VII Corps, 1st Armored Division; (U.S.based Units) 1st Infantry Division, 2nd Armored Division
46,000
Bad Mergentheim, Walldürn, Crailsheim, Würzburg, Kitzingen, Rothenburg o.d. Tauber, Neustadt an der Aisch
Reforger V  Certain Charge
9 Oct 1973
16 Oct 1973
(Germany based units) VII Corps, 1st Armored Division, 3rd Infantry Division, Panzerbrigade 29; (U.S.based Units) 1st Infantry Division, 1st Cavalry Division
51,000
Nürnberg, Ansbach, Schwäbisch Hall, Schwäbisch Gmünd, Dinkelsbühl, Ingolstadt, Crailsheim
Reforger 74 Certain Plegde
10 Oct 1974
23 Oct 1974
(Germany based units) VII Corps, 32nd Armored Cavalry Regiment, 1st Armored Division, 4th Canadian Mechanized Brigade; (U.S.based Units) 1st Infantry Division, 1st Cavalry Division
44,000
Stuttgart, Ulm, Donauwörth, Eichstätt, Weißenburg, Crailsheim, Heidenheim, Göppingen, Schwäbisch Hall, Dinkelsbühl
Reforger 75 Certain Trek
14 Oct 1975
23 Oct 1975
(Germany based units) VII Corps, 2nd Armored Cavalry Regiment, 3rd Infantry Division; (U.S.based Units) 1st Infantry Division, 3rd Armored Cavalry Regiment
57,000
Ansbach, Fürth, Erlangen, Bamberg, Fulda, Hanau, Darmstadt, Heidelberg
Reforger 76 Gordian Shield
7 Sep 1976
11 Sep 1976
(Germany based units) V Corps, 11th Armored Cavalry Regiment, 8th Infantry Division, Panzerbrigade 13; (U.S.based Unit) 101st Airbourne Division
40,000
Alsfeld, Feldatal, Lauterbach, Marburg, Zeilbach
Reforger 76   Lares Team
11 Sep 1976
17 Sep 1976
(Germany based units) V Corps, 2nd Armored Cavalry Regiment, 1st Armored Division, 4th Canadian Mechanized Brigade, Panzergrenadierbrigade 29; (U.S.based Units) 1st Infantry Division, 101st Airbourne Division
43,000
Nürnberg, Amberg, Regensburg, Ingolstadt, Donauwörth, Ansbach
Reforger 77 Carbon Edge
13 Sep 1977
21 Sep 1977
(Germany based units) VII Corps, 2nd Armored Cavalry Regiment, 3rd Infantry Division; (U.S.based Units) 1st Infantry Division, 3rd Armored Cavalry Regiment, 1st Cavalry Division
51,800
Stuttgart, Tübingen, Ulm, Augsburg, München, Füssen, Sonthofen, Friedrichshafen, Tuttlingen
Reforger 78 Certain Shield
18 Sep 1978
28 Sep 1978
(Germany based units) V Corps, 11th Armored Cavalry Regiment, 8th Infantry Division, 3rd Armored Division; (U.S.based Units) 4th Infantry Division, 5th Infantry Division, 9th Infantry Division
55,780
Frankfurt, Wetzlar, Bad Hersfeld, Fulda, Wildflecken, Karlstadt, Aschaffenburg, Hanau, Schweinfurt, Darmstadt, Limburg, Marburg
Reforger 79 Certain Sentinel
27 Jan 1979
7 Feb 1979
Orange Force: (Germany based units) VII Corps, 1st Armored Division, 4th Canadian Mechanized Brigade, 210th Field Artillery Brigade, 2nd Company of Panzerbataillon 303; Blue Force: (Germany based units) 1st Infantry Division FWD, 2nd Armored Cavalry Regiment, Panzerbrigade 14, (U.S.based Unit) 1st Infantry Division 2nd Brigade 1st Cavalry Division
61,000
Bamberg, Hammelburg, Würzburg, Ansbach
Reforger 80 Certain Rampart
15 Sep 1980
24 Sep 1980
Orange Force: (Germany based units) VII Corps, 3rd Infantry Division, Panzergrenadierbrigade 35, 72nd Field Artillery Brigade; Blue Force: (Germany based units) 1st Armored Division, 2nd Armored Cavalry Regiment, 4th Canadian Mechanized Brigade, Panzerbataillon 114, (U.S.based Unit) 2-34 Armor of 4th Infantry Division, 82nd Airborne Division
38,000
Nürnberg, Ingolstadt, Scheyern, Augsburg, Regensburg, Gunzenhausen, Ansbach
Reforger 81 Certain Encounter
8 Sep 1981
23 Sep 1981
Blue Force: (Germany based units) V Corps, 8th Infantry Division, 11th Armored Cavalry Regiment, Panzerbrigade 6, Panzergrenadierbrigade 13, (U.S.based Units) 4th Infantry Division, 7th Infantry Division; Orange Force: (Germany based units) 3rd Armored Division, 20th Armored brigae (UK), Panzerbrigade 6, Panzergrenadierbrigade 13, (U.S.based Units) III Corps, 1st Infantry Division
70,000
Fulda, Gießen, Bad Hersfeld, Marburg, Schwalm-Eder-Kreis, Wetteraukreis
Reforger 82 Carbine Fortress
13 Sep 1982
23 Sep 1982
Blue Force: (Germany based units) V Corps, VII Corps, 3rd Infantry Division, 8th Infantry Division, Panzerdivision 12, 44th Artillery Battalion (NL), (U.S.based Units) 1st Infantry Division, 3rd Brigade 82nd Airborne Division, 4th Brigade 4th Infantry Division; Orange Force: (Germany based units) 1st Armored Division, 4th Canadian Mechanized Brigade, 210th Field Artillery Brigade, Infantry Battalion (NL), Infantry Battalion (BE), (U.S.based Units) III Corps, 1st Cavalry Division, 3rd Armored Cavalry Regiment
72,500
Bamberg,, Heidenheim, Wertheim, Schweinfurt, Ebern, Ochsenfurt, Steigerwald
Reforger 83 Confident Enterprise
19 Sep 1983
30 Sep 1983
Blue Force: (Germany based units) V Corps, 11th Armored Cavalry Regiment, 3rd Armored Division; Orange Force: (Germany based units) 8th Infantry Division, Panzerbrigade 15, (U.S.based Units) 3rd Armored Cavalry Regiment, 4th Brigade 4th Infantry Division, 1/75th Ranger Regiment
61,000
Bad Hersfeld, Vogelsbergkreis, Gießen, Main-Kinzig-Kreis
Reforger 84 Certain Fury
12 Sep 1984
28 Sep 1984
Orange Force: (Germany based units) VII Corps, 3rd Infantry Division, 2nd Armored Cavalry Regiment, 6-52 Air Defense Artillery, 7th Engineer Brigade, (U.S.based Units) 385th Engineer Group; Blue Force: (Germany based units) 1st Infantry Division FWD, 72nd Field Artillery Brigade; (U.S.based Units) 5th Infantry Division, 2/75th Ranger Regiment, 372nd Engineer Group, F Company 425th Infantry (Michigan NG)
50,000
Donauwörth, Nördlingen, Schwäbisch Hall, Göppingen, Ansbach
Reforger 85 Central Guardian
21 Jan 1985
31 Jan 1985
Orange Force: (Germany based units) 3rd Armored Division, 3rd Brigade 3rd Infantry Division, Panzergrenadierbrigade 13, (U.S.based Units) 1-199 Armor of 30th Armored Brigade (Tennessee NG), 4th Infantry Division; Blue Force: (Germany based units) V Corps, 8th Infantry Division, 11th Armored Cavalry Regiment, Panzergrenadierbrigade 35, Light Infantry Battalion (LUX), (U.S.based Units) 197th Infantry Brigade, 2/75th Ranger Regiment, 1-110 Armor of 26th Infantry Division (Massachussets NG), 2-181 Infantry of 26th Infantry Division (Massachussets NG)
72,000
Kassel, Frankenberg, Homberg, Neukirchen, Vogelsbergkreis, Bad Hersfeld, Battenberg, Gießen, Wetzlar, Butzbach
Reforger 86 Certain Sentinel
20 Jan 1986
31 Jan 1986
Blue Force: (Germany based units) VII Corps, 1st Armored Division, 11th Armored Cavalry Regiment, 4th Canadian Mechanized Brigade, 210 and 212 Field Artillery Brigades Orange Force: (Germany based units) 1st Infantry Division FWD, Panzerdivision 12, Panzerbrigade 36; (U.S.based Units) 1st Infantry Division, 32nd Infantry Brigade (Wisconsin NG), 724th Engineer Battalion, 72nd Field Artillery Brigade
73,000
Schweinfurt, Kulmbach, Hof, Weiden, Schwandorf, Ansbach, Kitzingen, Grafenwöhr, Bamberg
Reforger 87 Certain Strike
14 Sep 1987
24 Sep 1987
Orange Force: (Germany based units) 4th Division (NL), 43rd (NL) Panzergrenadierbrigade, 4th Tank Brigade (UK); Blue Force: (Germany based units) Panzergrenadierbrigade 1, Panzerdivision 1, Panzerbrigade 3, (U.S.based Units) III Corps, 2nd Armored Division, 1st Cavalry Division, 4th Infantry Division, 45th Infantry Brigade (Oklahoma NG)
78,300
Hannover, Wolfsburg, Uelzen, Rotenburg (Wümme), Soltau, Verden, Nienburg
Reforger 88 Certain Challenge
6 Sep 1988
26 Sep 1988
Gold Force: (Germany based units) CENTAG, VII Corps, 3rd Infantry Division, 2nd Armored Cavalry Regiment, 1st Infantry Division FWD, Panzerdivision 12, 4th Canadian Mechanized Brigade, 7th Engineer Brigade, 72nd Field Artillery Brigade, 210th Field Artillery Brigade, (U.S.based Units) 1st Infantry Division, 2-128 Infantry Regiment (Wisconsin NG); Blue Force: (Germany based units) V Corps, 3rd Armored Division, 8th Infantry Division, Panzerdivision 10, 11th Armored Cavalry Regiment, Berlin Brigade, 130th Engineer Brigade, 41st Field Artillery Brigade, (U.S.based Units) 3rd Armored Cavalry Regiment, 197th Infantry Brigade
124,800
Bad Kissingen, Bamberg, Nürnberg, Dinkelsbühl, Heidenheim, Crailsheim, Heilbronn, Schwäbisch Hall, Bad Mergentheim, Wertheim, Gemünden
1989
No Reforger
 
Reforger 90 Centurion Shield
15 Jan 1990
26 Jan 1990
Gold Force: (Germany based units) VII Corps, 1st Armored Division, 1st Infantry Division FWD, 2nd Armored Cavalry Regiment, Panzerbrigade 36, Panzergrenadierbrigade 13, (U.S.based Units) 10th Mountain Division; Blue Force: (Germany based units) V Corps, 3rd Armored Division, 11th Armored Cavalry Regiment, 8th Infantry Division 1st Brigade, Gebirgsdivision 1, (U.S.based Units) 2nd Armored Division, 194th Armored Brigade, 31st Armored Brigade (Alabama NG), Panzerbrigade 24
57,300
Ansbach, Regensburg, Landshut, Dachau, Schwetzingen, Heilbronn
Reforger 91 CPX Certain Shield
10 Sep 1991
20 Sep 1991
Blue Force: (Germany based units) NORTHAG, V Corps, I Corps (BE), I Corps (NL) and I Corps (UK), (U.S.based Units) III Corps, HQs 10th Mountain Division, elements of 4th Infantry Division; Gold Force: (Germany based units) 3rd Armored Division (UK), 12th Armored Brigade (NL)
28,400
Paderborn, Bielefeld, Kassel, Göttingen
Reforger 92 CPX Certain Caravan
17 Sep 1992
15 Nov 1992
(Germany based units) CENTAG, V Corps; III Corps (GE), (U.S.based Units) HQs 1st Infantry Division, HQs 30th Armored Brigade (Tennessee NG), HQs 3rd Brigade 7th Infantry Division
20,000
Hessen, CMTC Hohenfels
Reforger 93 CPX Chariot Fury
May 1993
May 1993
(Germany based units) CENTAG, V Corps, HQs 3rd Infantry Division, HQs 1st Armored Division, HQs Panzerdivision 5, HQs 20th Tank Brigade (UK), HQs 12th Mechanized Brigade (NL)
2,000
Kaiserslautern
 
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